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Metals are shaped by processes such as: Casting — molten metal is poured into a shaped mold.
Forging — a red-hot billet is hammered into shape. Rolling — a billet is passed through successively narrower rollers to create a sheet. Laser cladding — metallic powder is blown through a movable laser beam e.
The resulting melted metal reaches a substrate to form a melt pool. By moving the laser head, it is possible to stack the tracks and build up a three-dimensional piece. Extrusion — a hot and malleable metal is forced under pressure through a diewhich shapes it before it cools.
Sintering — a powdered metal is heated in a non-oxidizing environment after being compressed into a die. Machining — lathesmilling machinesand drills cut the cold metal to shape. Fabrication — sheets of metal are cut with guillotines or gas cutters and bent and welded into structural shape.
Work hardening creates microscopic defects in the metal, which resist further changes of shape. Various forms of casting exist in industry and academia. These include sand castinginvestment casting also called the lost wax processdie castingand continuous castings.
Each of these forms has advantages for certain metals and applications considering factors like magnetism and corrosion. Common heat treatment processes include annealingprecipitation strengtheningquenchingand tempering.
Quenching is the process of cooling a high-carbon steel very quickly after heating, thus "freezing" the steel's molecules in the very hard martensite form, which makes the metal harder.
There is a balance between hardness and toughness in any steel; the harder the steel, the less tough or impact-resistant it is, and the more impact-resistant it is, the less hard it is. Tempering relieves stresses in the metal that were caused by the hardening process; tempering makes the metal less hard while making it better able to sustain impacts without breaking.
Often, mechanical and thermal treatments are combined in what are known as thermo-mechanical treatments for better properties and more efficient processing of materials. These processes are common to high-alloy special steels, superalloys and titanium alloys. Plating Electroplating is a chemical surface-treatment technique.
It involves bonding a thin layer of another metal such as goldsilverchromium or zinc to the surface of the product. This is done by selecting the coating material electrolyte solution which is the material that is going to coat the work piece gold, silver, There needs to be two electrodes of different materials one the same material as the coating material and one that is receiving the coating material.
It is used to reduce corrosion as well as to improve the product's aesthetic appearance. It is also used to make inexpensive metals look like the more expensive ones gold, silver. Shot peening Shot peening is a cold working process used to finish metal parts.
In the process of shot peening, small round shot is blasted against the surface of the part to be finished.Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products .
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