Diagnosis and treatment modalities of triple fusion

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary table 1.

Diagnosis and treatment modalities of triple fusion

Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.

Different blood and immune cell lineages, including T and B lymphocytes, differentiate from a common blood stem cell.

Marrow involvement of acute leukemia as seen by light microscopy is defined as follows: Almost all patients with ALL present with an M3 marrow.

Diagnosis and treatment modalities of triple fusion

The primary accepted risk factors for ALL and associated genes when relevant include the following: Prenatal exposure to x-rays.

Postnatal exposure to high doses of radiation e. Previous treatment with chemotherapy. Genetic conditions that include the following: Refer to the Down syndrome section of this summary for more information. Carriers of a constitutional Robertsonian translocation that involves chromosomes 15 and 21 are specifically and highly predisposed to developing iAMP21 ALL.

Low- and high-penetrance inherited genetic variants Genetic predisposition to ALL can be divided into the following several broad categories: Association with genetic syndromes. Increased risk can be associated with the genetic syndromes listed above in which ALL is observed, although it is not the primary manifestation of the condition.

Another category for genetic predisposition includes common alleles with relatively small effect sizes that are identified by genome-wide association studies.

Associated Data

Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of germline inherited genetic polymorphisms that are associated with the development of childhood ALL. ARID5B is a gene that encodes a transcriptional factor important in embryonic development, cell type—specific gene expression, and cell growth regulation.

A germline variant in PAX5 that substitutes serine for glycine at amino acid and that reduces PAX5 activity has been identified in several families that experienced multiple cases of ALL.

In at least some cases of childhood ALL, the initial genomic alteration appears to occur in utero. Early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia. The systematic investigation of these issues requires large clinical trials, and the opportunity to participate in these trials is offered to most patients and families.

In certain trials in which the cure rate for the patient group is very high, therapy reduction questions may be asked. Much of the progress made in identifying curative therapies for childhood ALL and other childhood cancers has been achieved through investigator-driven discovery and tested in carefully randomized, controlled, multi-institutional clinical trials.

Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website. Current Clinical Trials Use our advanced clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now enrolling patients. The search can be narrowed by location of the trial, type of treatment, name of the drug, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available. Declining childhood and adolescent cancer mortality.

National Cancer Institute,Section Last accessed June 29, Childhood cancer by the ICCC. National Cancer Institute, Last accessed August 17, Cancer Facts and Figures American Cancer Society,pp Last accessed April 04, Shah A, Coleman MP: Increasing incidence of childhood leukaemia: Br J Cancer 97 7:Improving the U.S.

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