The natural law concept existed long before Locke as a way of expressing the idea that there were certain moral truths that applied to all people, regardless of the particular place where they lived or the agreements they had made. The most important early contrast was between laws that were by nature, and thus generally applicable, and those that were conventional and operated only in those places where the particular convention had been established.
History[ edit ] Ancient understandings of authority trace back to Rome and draw later from Catholic Thomistic thought and other traditional understandings.
In more modern terms, forms of authority include transitional authority exhibited in for example Cambodia public authority in the form of popular powerand, in more administrative terms, bureaucratic or managerial techniques.
In terms of bureaucratic governance, one limitation of the governmental agents of the executive branch, as outlined by George A.
Krause, is that they are not as close to the popular will as elected representatives are. As David Laitin defines, authority is a key concept to be defined in determining the range and role of political theory, science and inquiry.
In recent years, however, authority in political contexts has been challenged or questioned.
There have been several contributions to the debate of political authority. In political philosophythe jurisdiction of political authority, the location of sovereigntythe balancing of freedom and authority,  and the requirements of political obligations have been core questions from the time of Plato and Aristotle to the present.
Most democratic societies are engaged in an ongoing discussion regarding the legitimate extent of the exercise of governmental authority.
In the United Statesfor instance, there is a prevailing belief that the political system as instituted by the Founding Fathers should accord the populace as much freedom as reasonable, and that government should limit its authority accordingly, known as limited government.
In the discussion regarding the legitimacy of political authority, there are two beliefs at the respective ends of the spectrum. The first is the belief in the absolute freedom of the individual, otherwise known as political anarchism. The second is the belief that there must be a central authority in the form of a sovereign that claims ownership and control over the masses.
This belief is known as statism.
Sovereignty, in modern terms, can refer either to the adherence to a form of sovereign rule or the individual sovereignty, or autonomy, of a nation-state.
The argument for political anarchy and anti-statism is made by Michael Huemer in his book The Problem of Political Authority. Sociology[ edit ] Since the emergence of the social sciencesauthority has become a subject of research in a variety of empirical settings: The definition of authority in contemporary social science remains a matter of debate.
Max Weber in his essay " Politics as a Vocation " divided legitimate authority into three types. This was because, as Abraham Lincoln also declared, "No man is good enough to govern another man, without that other's consent.Foundationalism.
Epistemic foundationalism is a view about the proper structure of one’s knowledge or justified beliefs. Some beliefs are known or justifiably believed only because some other beliefs are known or justifiably believed.
One evening over dinner, I began to joke, as I often had before, about writing an essay called “Men Explain Things to Me.” Every writer has a stable of ideas that never make it to the racetrack, and I’d been trotting this pony out recreationally every once in a while.
Of course you shouldn’t tolerate the “intolerable” What I would advocate is trying to expand one’s definition of tolerable.
Spending one’s effort in a fight, either political or a literal war, is not usually a good way to increase utility. Essay: Balancing the Right to Protest in the Aftermath of September 11 Christopher Dunn: Articles: The Future of Community Justice Adriaan Lanni.
|Locke's Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)||Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.|
|Ancient Greece||Of the great variety of kinds of argumentation used in the law, some are persuasive rather than strictly logical, and others exemplify different procedures in applied logic rather than the formulas of pure logic.|
|I Can Tolerate Anything Except The Outgroup | Slate Star Codex||Dec 17th, By Bryan Cross Category: Blog Posts Steve Hays has claimed that what I recently said about justification is at odds with what Robert Sungenis has said about justification.|
Authority is the right to exercise power, which can be formalized by a state and exercised by way of judges, appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a God or other deities..
A governing body may be labelled an authority e.g. the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and timberdesignmag.com Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in by .