Essay writing funnel method

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Essay writing funnel method

In this experiment aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. In the reaction the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring in salicylic acid reacted with acetic anhydride to form an ester functional group.

This method of forming acetylsalicylic acid is an esterification reaction. Since this esterification reaction is not spontaneous, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst to initiate the reaction.

Crystallization, which uses the principle of solubility, was then used to remove most of the impurities and caused the acetylsalicylic acid to precipitate out of the solution.

Next, the crude product was then purified by adding water which further Essay writing funnel method the solubility of acetylsalicylic acid and dissolved some impurities from the crystal of aspirin. The aspirin was then isolated from the solution using a vacuum filtration apparatus. The percent yield of crude aspirin product was To purify the crude aspirin product a recrystallization procedure was performed.

The percent yield of the purified aspirin product was 5. Next a phenol test was performed on the crude aspirin product, the purified aspirin product, and salicylic acid as a control.

The phenol test was to test the purity of the aspirin product that was created during the experiment. The crude aspirin product and the purified aspirin product had no color changes and remained orange when mixed with the iron III chloride solution, which means that there were no phenol groups in both the crude aspirin product and the purified aspirin product.

The lack of reaction with the iron III chloride revealed that both the crude aspirin product and the purified aspirin product were pure aspirin. The salicylic acid turned into a dark purple color when mixed with the iron III chloride solution, which was expected since salicylic acid has phenol groups.

Next a melting point test was performed on the purified aspirin product. The purified product started to melt at 86 degrees Celsius and finished completely melting at degrees Celsius.

The melting point of the purified product was lower than the expected degree Celsius melting point of aspirin, which revealed to us that the purified aspirin product still contained some impurities. As early as BC ancient cultures such as Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Chinese found that extracts from plants such as willow bark, meadowsweet, and myrtle possessed the ability to alleviate fever, pain, and inflammation.

These plants contain a compound called salicylate, which creates these curative attributes. Several of years later the folk remedy of plants containing salicylate transformed into the cure-all medication known as aspirin.

Today aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is an over the counter medication that is extremely popular and is used for relieving pain, reducing fever, reducing swelling, and slowing blood clotting.

The history of aspirin began in when Edward Stone wrote a paper to the Royal Society of London that claimed that willow bark could cure ague, which is now known as malaria.

Later it was found that the treatment did not actually cure malaria, but instead just reduced the fever of those with the disease. Organic chemists began working with willow bark and many other plants to try and extract and isolate the active ingredients from them, in doing so it was found that the active ingredient was salicylic acid.

Illegal Mining. If you research areas where others have found gold and where mines have been abandoned which will still harbor gold that you may find useful, you may come across mines and regions which still have gold but are illegal to mine, even if they have been mined previously. Ethyl acetate is the most popular ester from ethanol and acetic acid. It is manufactured on a large scale for use as a solvent. Ethyl acetate is a moderately polar solvent that has the advantages of being volatile, relatively non-toxic, and non-hygroscopic. Ethyl Acetate is an organic compound which. The first issue of Off Our Backs after the Roe decision included one of my movie reviews, and also an essay by another member of the collective criticizing the decision. It didn’t go far enough.

Salicylic acid was then industrialized for medicinal use, but soon after industrialization it was found that salicylic acid was extremely limited as a treatment because of the acidic properties that cause severe irritation in the digestive tract.

InFelix Hofmann synthesized acetylsalicylic acid, which has all of the same medicinal benefits as salicylic acid but it did not have the side effect of irritating the digestive tract. Hofmann worked for Bayer, which then named acetylsalicylic acid compound aspirin.

Aspirin became commercially available in and today it is estimated that over a trillion aspirin tablets have been consumed by those in need of its curative effects. In this experiment aspirin was synthesized from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. Salicylic acid was esterfied using acetic acid and sulfuric acid acting as a catalyst to produce acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid.

The phenol group that will attack the carbonyl carbon of the acetic anhydride is the —OH group that is directly attached to the benzene since it is more basic than the —OH group attached to the carbonyl group.

Sulfuric acid serves as the acid catalyst since its conjugate base is a strong deprotonating group that is necessary in order for this reaction to be reversible.

The need for the strong conjugate base is the reason why other strong acids such as HCl is not used since its conjugate base Cl- is very weak compared to HSO After the reaction was complete some unreacted acetic anhydride and salicylic acid was still be present in the solution as well as some sulfuric acid, aspirin, and acetic acid.

This precipitation happens because the solvent can no longer hold all of the solute molecules, and the molecules begin to leave the solution and form solid crystals. During this cooling, each solute molecule in turn approaches a growing crystal and rests on the crystal surface.

If the geometry of the molecule fits that of the crystal, it will be more likely to remain on the crystal than it is to go back into the solution. Therefore, each growing crystal consists of only one type of molecule, the solute. After the solution had come to room temperature, it was carefully submerged in an ice bath to complete the crystallization process.

To purify the crude product, water was added to solution to further lower the solubility of acetylsalicylic acid and to dissolve some of the impurities from the crystal.The Funnel Method Basic Concept: The funnel is a structure for writing that improves the student’s ability to understand and incorporate language within an essay to give the direction a sense of unity and flow.

If some of the weirder psi suppression theories are right, psi should actually be easier to study by conducting personal experiments than by trying to study or do public science, especially if you precommit yourself to not telling anyone about the results.

Essay writing funnel method

The goal of this experiment was to synthesize aspirin. In this experiment aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, was synthesized from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. In the reaction the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring in salicylic acid reacted with acetic anhydride to form an ester functional group.

This method of forming acetylsalicylic acid [ ]. Nov 19,  · I have an English paper due on Monday, and we're required to use the funnel method in our introductory paragraph.

I'm still unsure about how to write a funnel paragraph, as well as use it. My essay is a character analysis timberdesignmag.com: Resolved.

Ethyl acetate is the most popular ester from ethanol and acetic acid. It is manufactured on a large scale for use as a solvent. Ethyl acetate is a moderately polar solvent that has the advantages of being volatile, relatively non-toxic, and non-hygroscopic. Ethyl Acetate is an organic compound which.

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