Mirror paper

The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivityand a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidiana naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia modern-day Turkey have been dated to around B.

Mirror paper

Download powerpoint Figure 4 A Mark-directed behavior by subject to a real mirror immediately after release from being marked. A narrow Plexiglas mirror, The faint white line on the wall indicates the location of mirror.

B The dolphin at Wall 1, the best reflective surface in the session, exhibiting late sham-directed behavior: This unusual behavioral sequence continued for 32 sec. Moreover, numerous qualitative observations corroborate our more formal quantitative analyses.

He exhibited a continuous sequence of 12 dorsal-to-ventral body flips in front of Wall 1 that brought the right pectoral fin into close viewing range at this highly reflective surface Fig. Another notable example occurred during a series of additional sessions that were conducted after the formal experimental sessions included in the data set were completed.

The dolphin, upon being marked for the first Mirror paper only time on the tongue, immediately swam to the Plexiglas mirror and engaged in a mouth opening and closing sequence never before observed by him during the study. Procedures for Second Subject To conduct an efficient and clear-cut assessment of whether this capacity is replicable in a second subject, the same three predictions for Phase 2 were made and tested on the second animal who was still housed in the Phase 2 pool.

We used an assessment technique whereby only the most definitive aspects of our tests on the first subject were repeated on the second.

The dolphin Mirror paper videotaped during 20 nonmarked prefeeding control sessions and during 11 postfeeding sessions consisting of the marked or sham-marked condition with the mirror, 5 marked or sham-marked conditions with a covered mirror or no mirror, and 4 unmarked or no sham-mark conditions with the mirror.

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Thus, 16 mark or sham-mark sessions were conducted in this phase. Mark and sham conditions, i. Randomized videotaped segments were scored by two independent raters blind to experimental condition and treatment. They conducted a second-by-second video analysis and scored the duration, location, and time of occurrence of specific behaviors exhibited by the dolphin during the initial sec period at the mirror after the release signal.

Only the initial sec period of mirror orientation by the dolphin was used for testing predictions 2 and 3 in the second subject because we found this to be the most diagnostic time period for analysis with the first subject. No social behaviors were exhibited by the dolphin for the remainder of time spent at the mirror during these sessions.

Results for Second Subject We tested the same three predictions from Phase 2 testing of the first subject, again adopting the stance that if any of these predictions were falsified, we would conclude that we did not demonstrate self-recognition in the subject.

For this analysis, the entire videotaped segments were reviewed, but no social behaviors at the mirror occurred during these segments or when the mirror was reintroduced into the pool after being absent for some time.

This prediction was confirmed. Therefore, the mean time spent at the mirror location when the animal was marked and the mirror present and uncovered was significantly greater than under any other condition. Latency data were transformed as with the first subject to account for negative values, which occurred in four out of nine of the sessions in the mark or sham condition because the dolphin departed from the station before the release time began.

Therefore, when the dolphin was marked or late sham-marked, he quickly swam to the mirror upon release and in some cases before the release signal and immediately exposed the marked or sham-marked part of its body to the mirror. General Discussion Collectively, these findings provide definitive evidence that the two dolphins in this study used the mirror and other reflective surfaces to investigate parts of their bodies that were marked.

These findings, therefore, offer the first convincing evidence that a nonprimate species, the bottlenose dolphin, is capable of MSR. Our study revealed interesting similarities and differences between the way dolphins and chimpanzees respond to mirrors and body marks.

Chimpanzees have been reported to habituate rapidly to body marks in the context of mark tests 2.

Mirror paper

Likewise, although our subjects displayed clear self-orienting mark-directed behavior after being marked or after late-sham marking, neither one maintained a continuous orientation to the mirror throughout the entire session.

This may indicate habituation to the mark after inspection of it.Over the past nine years the funds raised at the annual event have sent 54 children to Camp Merrywood, but in this milestone year the committee has set its sights high and is hoping to raise enough funds to send 10 children to Merrywood.

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The first animal in which researchers have studied mirror neurons individually is the macaque timberdesignmag.com these monkeys, mirror neurons are found in the inferior frontal gyrus (region F5) and the inferior parietal lobule..

Mirror neurons are believed to mediate the understanding of other animals' timberdesignmag.com example, a mirror neuron which fires when the monkey rips a piece of paper would also.

The first animal in which researchers have studied mirror neurons individually is the macaque timberdesignmag.com these monkeys, mirror neurons are found in the inferior frontal gyrus (region F5) and the inferior parietal lobule..

Mirror neurons are believed to mediate the understanding of other animals' timberdesignmag.com example, a mirror neuron which fires when the monkey rips a piece of paper would also.

The Government's Brexit White Paper was branded an "utter shambles" after the Tories forced MPs to debate a plan they hadn't seen. The Commons was suspended in a rare move to give MPs five minutes. A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular timberdesignmag.com is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected.

Mirror neuron - Wikipedia