Rice production

Arsenic toxicity As arsenic is a natural element in soil, water, and air, the United States Food and Drug Administration FDA monitors the levels of arsenic in foods, particularly in rice products used commonly for infant food. When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of toxin production. Rice-growing environments Rice can be grown in different environments, depending upon water availability. There have been many debates on the origins of the domesticated rice.

Rice production

Seed quality and selection Seed is a living product that must be grown, harvested, and processed correctly in order to realize the yield potential of any rice variety. Using good seed leads to lower seeding rates, higher crop emergence, reduced replanting, more uniform plant stands, and more vigorous early crop growth.

Vigorous growth in early stages reduces weed problems and increases crop resistance to insect pests and diseases. All of these factors contribute to higher yields and more productive rice farms.

Choosing seed of a suitable variety of rice that suits the environment it will be grown in and ensuring the seed choosen of that variety is of the highest possible quality is the essential first step in rice production. Land preparation Before rice can be planted, the soil should be in the best physical condition for crop growth and the soil surface is level.

Tillage allows the seeds to be planted at the right depth, and also helps with weed control. Farmers can till the land themselves using hoes and other equipment or they can be assisted by draft animals, such as buffalo, or tractors and other machinery.

Next, the land is leveled to reduce the amount of Rice production wasted by uneven pockets of too-deep water or exposed soil. Effective land leveling allows the seedlings to become established more easily, reduces the amount of effort required to manage the crop, and increases both grain quality and yields.

Crop establishment The two main practices of establishing rice plants are transplanting and direct seeding. Pre- germinated seedlings are transferred from a seedbed to the wet field.

Land preparation

It requires less seed and is an effective method to control weeds, but requires more labor. Seedlings may be transplanted by either machine or hand. Direct seeding involves broadcasting dry seed or pre-germinated seeds and seedlings by hand or planting them by machine.

In rainfed and deepwater ecosystems, dry seed is manually broadcast onto the soil surface and then incorporated either by ploughing or by harrowing while the soil is still dry. In irrigated areas, seed is normally pre- germinated prior to broadcasting.

Water use and management Cultivated rice is extremely sensitive to water shortages. To ensure sufficient water, most rice farmers aim to maintain flooded conditions in their field.

This is especially true for lowland rice. Good water management in lowland rice focuses on practices that conserve water while ensuring sufficient water for the crop.

In rainfed environments when optimal amounts of water may not be available for rice production, a suite of options are available to help farmers cope with different degrees and forms of water scarcity. It includes sound land preparation and pre-planting activities followed by techniques such as saturated soil culture, alternate wetting and drying, raised beds, mulching, and use of aerobic rice that can cope with dryer conditions.

Nutrient management At each growth stage, the rice plant has specific nutrient needs. This makes nutrient management a critical aspect of rice farming. The unique properties of flooded soils make rice different from any other crop. Because of prolonged flooding in rice fields, farmers are able to conserve soil organic matter and also receive free input of nitrogen from biological sources, which means they need little or no nitrogen fertilizer to retain yields.

However, farmers can tailor nutrient management to the specific conditions of their field to increase yields. These include rodents, harmful insects, viruses, diseases, and weeds.

RICE PRODUCTION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES - M.K. Papademetriou*

Farmers manage weeds through water management and land preparation, by hand weeding, and in some cases herbcide application. Understanding the interactions among pests, natural enemies, host plants, other organisms, and the environment allows farmers to determine what if any pest management may be necessary.The National Food Authority (NFA) has been in the news lately.

Pictures of near empty government rice warehouses appearing in newspapers brought home the reason for the spike in the price of rice. Rice, one of the world's most important staple foods, is now facing a challenging time with increasing competition for dwindling resources such as land and water, unpredictable climate, farm.

Seed quality and selection

Rice seed selection is important to the production of rice as obtaining good quality rice seeds lead to faster growth which in turn helps with the resistance to pests and any diseases, as well as minimizing on weed problems that . In rice-producing Asia, it dominates the overall crop production.

Rice grows in more than a hundred countries, producing more than million tons annually. Rice productivity - . RICE PRODUCTION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES - M.K. Papademetriou * 1. INTRODUCTION.

Rice production

Rice is the staple food of Asia and part of the Pacific. Over 90 percent of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Currently, the largest rice-growing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh, holding about 72% of the total rice-producing area and contributing 75% to the total rice production in the country.

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