This subject explores aspects of counselling as a form of interpersonal communication and considers the role of self and culture, as well as important relational skills such as perception, listening and reflection. Students learn about different modes of interpersonal communication including verbal, nonverbal, written and oral, as well as the barriers to effective communication and approaches for overcoming them.
Philosophy of law "But what, after all, is a law? Normative jurisprudence asks "what should law be?
The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in connection with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinasnotably his Treatise on Law.
Hugo Grotiusthe founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason.
While laws are positive "is" statements e. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm Grundnorm instructing us to obey.
Later in the 20th century, H. Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication to resolve legal disputesrules of change allowing laws to be varied and the rule of recognition allowing laws to be identified as valid.
Dworkin argues that law is an " interpretive concept",  that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociologyrather than jurisprudence.
Positive law One definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour. Law and economics In the 18th century Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics.
The most influential proponents, such as Richard Posner and Oliver Williamson and the so-called Chicago School of economists and lawyers including Milton Friedman and Gary Beckerare generally advocates of deregulation and privatisationand are hostile to state regulation or what they see Therapeutic communication and group dynamics essay restrictions on the operation of free markets.
His second major article, The Problem of Social Costargued that if we lived in a world without transaction costs, people would bargain with one another to create the same allocation of resources, regardless of the way a court might rule in property disputes.
Only the existence of transaction costs may prevent this. The idea is that law and regulation are not as important or effective at helping people as lawyers and government planners believe.
Sociology of law Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society and overlaps with jurisprudence, philosophy of law, social theory and more specialised subjects such as criminology.
Sociology of law is sometimes seen as a sub-discipline of sociology, but its ties to the academic discipline of law are equally strong, and it is best seen as a transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary study focused on the theorisation and empirical study of legal practices and experiences as social phenomena.
In the United States the field is usually called law and society studies; in Europe it is more often referred to as socio-legal studies.
At first, jurists and legal philosophers were suspicious of sociology of law.
Around Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to personal authority but to the authority of abstract norms. Weber saw this law as having developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism.
Its peculiar features make its unique against the background of other sciences and disciplines. First, it is not only of a normative but also of a prescriptive nature. Law says how people ought to behave or not, what they may or may not require from others, and what they have to or have not to do if someone ask for that.
But normative statements in law are deprived of a descriptive or causal character as opposed to normative statements in empirical science as a law of gravity or even social science as a law of demand and supply in economics.
Second, there is no possibility of empirical verification of the contents of law. Whether the law should or should not comprise precepts of such-and-such import remains far beyond empirical proof.
It is a matter of choice. Third, law is dependent on the shape of the physical world and the limitations inherent in it. It cannot mandate behaviours which are unattainable or force people to do things which are beyond their capabilities. Fourth, law is fully contingent on humans and their minds.
Without humans and their mental operations it would be very difficult to speak about the law, its enforcement and application. Sixth, the role of authority is prominent in law, while at the same time in law there are not means which enable us to check the correctness of authoritative statements be they comprised in judicial opinions or scholarly literature.
Seventh, the procedure in which law is authoritatively applied is very specific. It is rigorous, precise, complex, casuistic and often very formal. There are also very limited means for re-opening such procedure when its being once completed.
The former are legal syllogismwhich holds sway in civil law legal systems, analogywhich is present in common law legal systems, especially in the US, and argumentative theories that occur in both systems.
The latter are different rules directives of legal interpretation such as directives of linguistic interpretation, teleological interpretation or systemic interpretation as well as more specific rules, for instance, golden rule or mischief rule. There are also many other arguments and cannons of interpretation which altogether make statutory interpretation possible.Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behaviour, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas.
Holistic Counseling & Training Center (HCTC) offers a variety of APT-Approved (#) continued education for Licensed Professional Counselors, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists, Licensed Clinical Social Workers and Registered Play Therapists.
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Send questions or comments to doi. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. We are now just past what I referred to as "the next decade" (in the original paper) wherein so much was/continues to be determined about how - and how soon - we begin this next age - or if we do - before the planet (otherwise) overhauls itself.
Team Dynamics - Abstract Communication and trust are essential for teams to function properly and achieve their end goals. A frame for communication lines must be laid out in advance as well as a combined contract that defines what the team expects to accomplish as a whole as well as individually.